Prince Ludwig Ferdinand of Bavaria (German: Prinz Ludwig Ferdinand Maria Karl Heinrich Adalbert Franz Philipp Andreas Konstantin von Bayern) (1859–1949), was a member of the Bavarian Royal House of Wittelsbach and a General of Cavalry. Following his marriage to Infanta Maria da Paz of Spain, he also became Spanish infante. He was the nominal Royal colonel of a Bavarian Infantry as well as of a Prussian Dragoons regiment.
He was the eldest son of Prince Adalbert of Bavaria (1828–75) and Infanta Amalia Philippina of Spain (1834–1905). He was a paternal grandson of King Ludwig I of Bavaria and his first wife Princess Therese of Saxe-Altenburg. His maternal grandparents were Infante Francisco de Paula of Spain and his wife Princess Luisa Carlotta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
Ludwig Ferdinand’s paternal uncles were King Maximilian II of Bavaria, King Otto I of Greece and Prince Regent Luitpold of Bavaria. His maternal uncle was King-Consort Francis of Spain (1822–1902) and maternally his first cousin was King Alfonso XII of Spain (1857–85), two years his senior. Ludwig Ferdinand was born in Madrid, but his younger siblings in Bavaria where they had returned.
Prince Ludwig Ferdinand was the only member of the Bavarian Royal Family who always remained on friendly terms with his cousin, king Ludwig II – and the only cousin to ever be invited, together with his wife, at Herrenchiemsee Palace as well as for private dinners at the Munich Residence. When Ludwig II was arrested at Neuschwanstein Castle in 1886, he called Ludwig Ferdinand for help; the latter immediately intended to follow this call, but was prevented from leaving Nymphenburg Palace by his uncle Luitpold who was about to take over government as the ruling Prince Regent.
Ludwig Ferdinand was one of only a few European princes doing an ordinary job outside government or military, by working as a surgeon and gynaecologist. During World War I however he worked as head of the surgery department of the Munich military hospital, in spite of being nominal Royal colonel of a Bavarian Infantry as well as of a Prussian Dragoons regiment.