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Karl Landsteiner, ForMemRS (June 14, 1868 – June 26, 1943), was an Austrian biologist and physician and immunologist. He distinguished the main blood groups in 1900. Continue reading Karl Landsteiner
Camillo Golgi (Italian: [kaˈmillo ˈɡɔldʒi]; 7 July 1843 – 21 January 1926) was an Italian physician, biologist, pathologist, scientist, and Nobel laureate. Several structures and phenomena in anatomy and physiology are named for him, including the Golgi apparatus, the Golgi tendon organ and the Golgi tendon reflex. He is recognized as the greatest neuroscientist and biologist of his time. Continue reading Camillo Golgi
Hideyo Noguchi (野口 英世 Noguchi Hideyo, November 9, 1876 – May 21, 1928), also known as Seisaku Noguchi (野口 清作 Noguchi Seisaku), was a prominent Japanese bacteriologist who in 1911 discovered the agent of syphilis as the cause of progressive paralytic disease. Continue reading Hideyo Noguchi
Grigoris Lambrakis (Greek: Γρηγόρης Λαμπράκης; 3 April 1912 – 27 May 1963) was a Greek politician, physician, track and field athlete, and member of the faculty of the School of Medicine at the University of Athens. A member of the Greek resistance to Axis rule during WWII, he later became a prominent anti-war activist. His assassination by right-wing zealots provoked mass protests and led to a political crisis. Continue reading Grigoris Lambrakis
Gustav Nachtigal (23 February 1834 – 20 April 1885) was a German explorer of Central and West Africa. He is further known as the German Empire‘s consul-general for Tunisia and Commissioner for West Africa. His mission as commissioner resulted in Togoland and Kamerun becoming the first colonies of a German colonial empire. The Gustav-Nachtigal-Medal, awarded by the Berlin Geographical Society, is named after him. Continue reading Gustav Nachtigal
Angelus Silesius (c. 1624 – 9 July 1677), born Johann Scheffler and also known as Johann Angelus Silesius, was a German Catholic priest and physician, known as a mystic and religious poet. Continue reading Johann Scheffler alias Angelus Silesius
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: Анто́н Па́влович Че́хов, pronounced [ɐnˈton ˈpavləvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕɛxəf]; 29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian playwright and short story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history. His career as a playwright produced four classics and his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics. Along with Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg, Chekhov is often referred to as one of the three seminal figures in the birth of early modernism in the theatre. Chekhov practiced as a medical doctor throughout most of his literary career: “Medicine is my lawful wife”, he once said, “and literature is my mistress.
Continue reading Anton Chekhov
Karl Theodor Jaspers (German: [ˈjaspɐs]; 23 February 1883 – 26 February 1969) was a German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher who had a strong influence on modern theology, psychiatry, and philosophy. After being trained in and practicing psychiatry, Jaspers turned to philosophical inquiry and attempted to discover an innovative philosophical system. He was often viewed as a major exponent of existentialism in Germany, though he did not accept this label. Continue reading Karl Jaspers
Carl Linnaeus (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/; 23 May[note 1] 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈkɑːɭ ˈfɔnː lɪˈneː] ( listen)), was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature. He is known by the epithet “father of modern taxonomy”. Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné). Continue reading Carl von Linné
Joseph-Ignace Guillotin (French pronunciation: [ɡijɔtɛ̃]; 28 May 1738 – 26 March 1814) was a French physician, politician and freemason who proposed on 10 October 1789 the use of a device to carry out death penalties in France, as a less painful method of execution. While he did not invent the guillotine, and in fact opposed the death penalty, his name became an eponym for it. The actual inventor of the prototype was Antoine Louis. Continue reading Joseph-Ignace Guillotin
Friedrich Joseph Haass (Russian: Фёдор Петрович Гааз, Fyodor Petrovich Gaaz; August 10, 1780 – August 16, 1853) was the “holy doctor of Moscow”. Born in Bad Münstereifel, as a member of Moscow’s governmental prison committee, he spent 25 years until the end of his life to humanize the penal system. During the last nine years before his death he spent all of his assets to run a hospital for homeless people. He died in Moscow. Twenty thousand people attended his funeral at the Vvedenskoye Cemetery. Continue reading Friedrich Joseph Haass
Nicolaus Copernicus (/koʊˈpɜːrnɪkəs, kə–/; Polish: Mikołaj Kopernik [miˈkɔwaj kɔˈpɛrɲik] ( listen); German: Nikolaus Kopernikus; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance mathematician, physician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier. Continue reading Nikolaus Kopernikus
Sebastian Kneipp (May 17, 1821, Stephansried, Germany – June 17, 1897, in Bad Wörishofen) was a Bavarian priest and one of the forefathers of the naturopathic medicine movement. He is most commonly associated with the “Kneipp Cure” form of hydrotherapy, the application of water through various methods, temperatures and pressures which he claimed to have therapeutic or healing effects. Continue reading Sebastian Kneipp
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (Spanish: [salβaˈðoɾ aˈʝende ˈɣosens]; 26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973), more commonly known as Salvador Allende, was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections. Continue reading Salvador Allende
Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuseˈlinu kubiˈtʃɛk dʒi oliˈvejɾɐ]; September 12, 1902 – August 22, 1976), known also by his initials JK, was a prominent Brazilian politician who was President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961. His term was marked by economic prosperity and political stability, being most known for the construction of a new capital, Brasília.
Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Порфи́рьевич Бороди́н; IPA: [ɐlʲɪkˈsandr pɐrˈfʲi rʲjɪvʲɪtɕ bərɐˈdʲin] ( listen), 12 November 1833 – 27 February 1887) was a Russian Romantic composer of Georgian origin, as well as a doctor and chemist. He was one of the prominent 19th century composers known as The Mighty Handful, a group dedicated to producing a uniquely Russian kind of classical music, rather than imitating earlier Western European models.
Borodin is best known for his symphonies, his two string quartets, In the Steppes of Central Asia and his opera Prince Igor. Music from Prince Igor and his string quartets was later adapted for the US musical Kismet. A notable advocate of women’s rights, Borodin was a promoter of education in Russia and founded the School of Medicine for Women in St. Petersburg. Continue reading Alexander Borodin
Franz Friedrich Anton Mesmer (/ˈmɛzmər/; German: [ˈmɛsmɐ]; May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815) was a German physician with an interest in astronomy, who theorised that there was a natural energetic transference that occurred between all animated and inanimate objects that he called animal magnetism, sometimes later referred to as mesmerism. The theory attracted a wide following between about 1780 and 1850, and continued to have some influence until the end of the century. In 1843 the Scottish physician James Braid proposed the term hypnosis for a technique derived from animal magnetism; today this is the usual meaning of mesmerism. Continue reading Franz Anton Mesmer
Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis, aged 42 in 1860
copperplate engraving by Jenő Doby
Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis[Note 1] (born Semmelweis Ignác Fülöp; 1 July 1818 – 13 August 1865) was a Hungarian physician of German extraction now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures. Described as the “savior of mothers”, Semmelweis discovered that the incidence of puerperal fever (also known as “childbed fever”) could be drastically cut by the use of hand disinfection in obstetrical clinics. Continue reading Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis